by Timothy McAdoo
One of our goals for this blog is to convey that following the guidelines of APA Style need not restrict your flexibility as a writer. Because of space limitations, many style points illustrated in the APA Publication Manual show only one or two examples. We’re happy that the blog now allows us to provide additional examples.
Today I have an illustration of how you may write a sentence in a variety of ways and still be following perfect APA Style. All of the following citations of a direct quote are in correct APA Style, citing the author, year, and page number.
Of course, these are just a few of the possible wordings for this sentence. Each of these examples properly cites the direct quotation, but I've varied the placement of the citation information. By changing the order of information in the sentence, I can choose what information to emphasize.
For example, because Example 2 begins with “In 2010,” you might use it if your greater context for this quote is to indicate the timeliness of the research in your literature review.
Or, you might find the quote so striking that you want to begin the sentence with it, as in Example 4, to make the most impact.
Or, you may be considering the readability and transitions from one sentence to the next. For example, if you ended the previous sentence with “Palladino and Wade,” you would probably not want to begin the next with “Palladino and Wade,” which would rule out Example 5. You might instead choose Example 2, but change the names to “they”:
|This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that "a flexible mind is a healthy mind" (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).|
I hope these examples begin to demonstrate the choices you have as an author using APA Style. More information on direct quotation of sources can be found on pages 170–174 of the Manual.
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author:
First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015)
Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)