Westernization Of Russia Under Peter The Great Essayists

What Were Peter The Great's Westernization Policies And How Did They Help Modernize Russia?

Tsar Peter I, also known as Peter the Great, ruling Russia from 1689 to 1725, implemented major military and domestic reforms that centralized Russia and increased its role in Europe. He centralized his power and revolutionized the role of the servant nobility, creating a vast bureaucracy that would stabilize Russia. He would apply Western principles to his armies and the Russian Cossacks would expand throughout Eurasia. Peter also introduced radical reforms that discouraged the ancient traditions of the Boyars and in establishing St. Petersburg would create a model European city. His great changes would revolutionize Russia and establish the nation as a formidable power in Europe.

It was during Peter the Great's reign that a large standing army of over 200,000 troops was instituted. This standing army was created in 1699, allowing the Tsar to consolidate his power and keep internal peace, while at the same time protecting Russia from foreign invaders. To create such a large standing army, the Tsar had to conscript peasants and commoners to serve the military, while Boyars, or Russian noblemen had the choice of either serving in the army or in the civil administration, for life. After creating a large standing army, the Tsar needed to create a navy that could hold its own at sea. Although much of the navy was made up of foreign officers, Peter felt that by modernizing and westernizing the armed forces, it would become stronger. To create an educated military and officer class, Peter had many schools and universities built. Compulsory education became a requirement of nobles, which helped them become educated in martial combat. Prior to the creation of these several military schools, the Tsar searched Europe for talented generals and officers, which would make up a large portion of his army, and the whole officer caste of the navy. This expansion of forces allowed Russia's army to grow in power, as well as expertise and efficiency. Peter the Great's military reforms aided him in establishing Russia as an arduous force in Europe. However, Peter was not able to undertake these major changes in the military administration without the funding that came from direct taxation, which would later help pay for other reforms.

During Peter's rule, the taxes rose three times causing the peasantry and commoners to become even more oppressed, while the nobles were exempt from paying taxes. It was through these various taxes that the Tsar was able to fund his military spending, and domestic reforms. Peter introduced a soul tax on all males, excluding the clergy and nobility, which allowed Peter to pay for the various conflicts that would arise...

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Czar Peter Romanov I also known as Peter “The Great” took many actions as being the absolute ruler of Russia, Peter impacted Russia positively and negatively through westernization and opening Russia to the west. Overall peter had a positive effect on Russia.

Peter’s main goal as Czar of Russia was to westernize his country, He realized that Russia should be westernized to ensure its independence, which was a positive impact Peter had completed. Already fascinated by mechanical inventions, he studied government and ways of the West. He modernized the calendar, simplified numerals, and the Russian alphabet. To make sure Russia had contact with the West, Peter captured the east shores of the Baltic Sea from the Swedish and built a new capital named after himself named St. Petersburg. Peter managed to modernize Russia without borrowing money from the country, so Peter imposed heavy taxes on the citizens, because European men usually were clean shaven, he even taxed Russians wearing beards.

All of the taxing that Peter imposed was a negative action he had taken. Peter’s positive actions towards the government were a good thing he did, he had three reforms of government. Local government, which towns were allowed to elect their own government officials. Provincial government, Russia was divided into 8 guberniia, each of the guberniias were lead by a Gubnator who had all of the power in his guberniia. Central government, the central government advised Peter, Peter thought that these reforms of government helped in the modernization of Russia.

Another positive thing Peter did was build a church, the Peter and Paul Cathedral, not only was it a place for the people of St. Petersburg to pray, but it was also used as a fortress to protect the area from a possible attack from the Swedes. It was the first church in the city made out of stone, the church stood 404 ft. tall being the tallest building in St. Petersburg. All of the Russian emperors are buried in the church from Peter the great to Alexander III.

In conclusion I think that Peter I had a positive effect on Russia, from westernization to his reforms of government, some of Peter’s ways are still used in modern Russia till this day.

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